Annex A - Group Research Proposal

Group Project Proposal (Science)
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE
INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE
Names: Joshua Yeow, Abel Chia, Jasper Lye
Class: S2-05
Group Reference: D
1.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:

[    ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis driven research

[    ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)
We are measuring the difference in pH level for all the drinks in different temperatures. 

X ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
We are investigating which drink will increase or decrease  in pH level the most in different temperatures.
[    ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
Graph for pH level increase for all the drinks in the different temperatures.
[    ] Observational and exploratory research
e.g. To see if it is safe to bring and consume certain drinks to places with drastic temperatures.

[    ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and Applied Research
e.g. Development of a SMART and GREEN energy system for households  


2.    Write a research proposal of your interested topic in the following format:

Title: An investigation on the effect of temperature on the pH level of different soft drinks. 

A.    Question being addressed


Our aim is to find out whether it is safe to consume some carbonated or normal drinks at drastic temperatures in mountains or at desert areas. Such as if the drink becomes too acidic to consume when heated or has too much alkaline in a mountain. We have already researched whether pH level increases or decreases if in different temperatures from the below sources.

So, why does the pH level in soft drinks increase or decrease when the temperature changes? The formation of hydrogen ions (hydronium ions) and hydroxide ions from water is an endothermic process. Using the simpler version of the equilibrium: H2O(l)⇌H+(aq)+OH−(aq). We want to see if it is safe to consume some of the gassy drinks in temperatures e.g.(in cold or very hot regions) where the Ph Level will increase or decrease and it may become too acidic or have too much alkaline.

The independent variable is temperature and type of drinks such as coke, sprite, root beer, Ice Lemon Tea
The dependent variable is pH level of drinks in different temperatures.
The constants are:
Temperature of drinks at the start of the experiment
Amount of drink in each cup at the start
Size and material of the cup each drink is put in.
The temperature of each of the drinks when on a heating plate
The temperature of each of the drinks, when put in the freezer

B.    Hypotheses

Our hypothesis is that the Coke will decrease the most in Ph Level (more acidic) when heated on a Bunsen burner, thus is will not be safe to drink it when heated or when in places that are very hot. The sprite will also be the most acidic at room temperature and the Ice Lemon Tea at cold temperatures, thus is will not be safe to drink it when cooled or when in places that are very cold.

C.    Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)

Equipment list: 
1 X 1.5 L Coke
1 X 1.5 L Sprite
1 X 1.5 L Ice Lemon Tea
1 X 1.5L Root Beer
1 X 1.5 L Water
6 x Thermometer
3 x  Ph level Indicator
6 x  Heating plates
18 X 100ml Beakers



• Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection 







1.    Measure the pH level of each drink and record it.
2.   Pour 100ml of Sprite into 3 cups each.
3.   Repeat step 2 for the other 4 drinks. ( Coke, Root Beer and Lemon Tea, water).
4.   Make one drink by mixing 25ml of each cold drink(not the water) into a cup.
5.   Make sure all the drinks are the same at room temperature.
6.   You should have 18 cups in total,3 cups of the same drink for each.
7.  Put one of each drink on the heating plate.
8.  Put one of each drink in the freezer
9.  Put one of each drink in a normal room temperature.
10.  When it reached the temperature ( freezer -5’c, Normal room temperature for the set up in a room, drink on the heating plate reaches 80’C)
11. Take it out of where it was from when it has reached the temperature required and immediately measure the pH level of each drink.
12. Record it and compare it to the original pH level and derive which drink’s pH level increased the most.
13. Repeat All the Steps above 1 more time to make the result more accurate and reliable.
• Risk and Safety: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.
   Risk                                                                                                      How to manage
1.Hot liquids might spill on us                                                               Use a wet cloth 
2.Liquids might spill on electronics                                                       Keep electronics away 
3.We might get burnt if we touch the heating plates accidentally         Use tongs to take the liquids
4.We might get burnt when measuring the temp for the drinks            Use gloves to measure temp.


• Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyse the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses

1.    Tabulate the data and calculate the difference in the pH level before and after.
2.   See which drink increased in pH level and which temperature it was put in.    
3.     Conclude if it is safe to drink when in certain temperatures when brought to drastic places like in the desert or when travelling to cold places like the Arctic.
4.  If it is not safe to drink in certain regions listed above, recommend the drinks that are safer to drink

D. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major references (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order.

Weiner, S. (2002, January 1). The pH of Various Soft Drinks. Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://www.selah.k12.wa.us/soar/sciproj2002/SaraW.html

Nigge, M. (2004, January 1). The pH Levels of Various Types of Soda Pop. Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://www.selah.k12.wa.us/soar/sciproj2005/marshaln.html

PH. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from https://spa-chemistry.wikispaces.com/pH and Carbon Dioxide

Ha, Eun-Jeong, Natalie Caine-Bish, Christopher Holloman, and Karen Lowry-Gordon. "Evaluation of Effectiveness of Class-Based Nutrition Intervention on Changes in Soft Drink and Milk Consumption Among Young Adults." Nutrition Journal (2009): 1-10. Web. 16 Feb 2010. http://www.nutritionj.com/content/8/1/50

THE STUDY OF WHICH FACTOR AFFECTS THE PH LEVEL THE MOST. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from https://cascience6isp.wikispaces.com/file/view/RohanS2014.pdf


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